SURFACES REPORTER- Architecture Magazine India & WADE ASIA Pays Tribute to Didi Contractor

A heartfelt tribute to the inspiring architect with a glimpse of the life and works of Didi Contractor and her evergreen spirit with a message from Vertica Dvivedi

5 July 2021 - Surfaces Reporter and WADE ASIA have special memories with Didi Contractor, WADEASIA Lifetime Award Winner 2017 and the inspiring self-taught architect who has dedicated her life to building with mud, abode and local sustainable materials. We salute her life, work and evergreen spirit! 

It is heartbreaking to know about the sad demise of Didi Contractor. The memories of my first meeting with her are still so fresh and beautiful. She was 88 then but had the spirit of a 20-year-old explorer. With her presentation & presence during WADE ASIA, she has left a lasting impression & inspiration for all of us to cherish. She will be deeply missed," says Vertica Dvivedi


It is difficult to believe that Didi Contractor is no more with us (Born as Delia Kinzinger, 1929). Unlike the millions of formally trained architects, she did not take any formal education or degree in architecture. She was a down-to-earth, self-taught architect who dedicated her life building with low energy materials such as bamboo, mud and stone architecture. For the past three decades, she had been passionately implementing her architectural visions in the North West of India, the Kangra Valley, at the foothills of the majestic Himalayas combining rural traditions with modern requirements. Very little documentation of her work was available. SURFACES REPORTER (SR) and WADE ASIA have been associated with her through her works. She was the first recipient of  WADE ASIA Lifetime Achievement Award’ in 2017. She is also the winner of the Nari Shakti Puraskar, India's highest civilian award for recognising the achievements and contributions of women. Steffi Giaracuni had made a documentary film on her which WADe Asia had proudly screened during the WADE Asia Festival from 28-29 October 2017 in Gurgaon, in association with Surfaces Reporter. This article is a heartfelt tribute to the inspiring architect with a glimpse of the life and works of Didi Contractor and her evergreen spirit. If you know her well or have a message to share about Didi Contractor and her work, please write to us at

"It is heartbreaking to know about the sad demise of Didi Contractor. The memories of my first meeting with her are still so fresh and beautiful. She was 88 then but had the spirit of a 20-year-old explorer. With her presentation & presence during WADE ASIA, she has left a lasting impression & inspiration for all of us to cherish. She will be deeply missed," says Vertica Dvivedi, Founder, WADE ASIA and Editor-in-Chief, Surfaces Reporter.

Didi mostly built with Adobe (sun-dried bricks) and also incorporated other naturally locally available materials and techniques in her architecture, making them unique and special. Light plays a significant role in her buildings. Although inspired by abstract concepts of nature and heritage, the style of each of her projects reflects the personality and needs of the individual client.

Didi encouraged other women to come forth and started wherever at whichever stage of life they are, citing her own example: she resumed building at age 60 after building the first few around the age of 30 and has never looked back. Even at the age of 90 years, she projected the same energy, enthusiasm and attention to detail to all her projects as would a woman in her 20’s. Naturally, WADE ASIA couldn’t think of a person more deserving to be receiving the First-Ever ‘WADe Asia Lifetime Achievement Award’ in 2017.

A Quick Glance Of The Life And Works Of Didi Contractor

For our first interaction, just finding and connecting with Didi, who has been in poor health and has limited access to phone and internet connection in the Kangra valley, was no mean task. Once connected, her clarity of thought, focus and attention to detail struck us instantly.

Didi Contractor -Architecture and Interior Design Magazine India

I have been fortunate to be able to live within the shadows of the Himalaya and look up to see the sunset and the sunrise on the slopes of the Himalaya so that one can lift one’s spirits just as the spirits of India are lifted by tradition and by the continent that we all inherited.- Didi expressed during her presentation at the WADEASIA, the largest platform for women in design, art and architecture. (Above photograph (from left) Didi Contractor, Ar Neelam Manjunath, Vertica Dvivedi and an architect from Bangladesh)

Early Life and Influences

Didi was born in the US and raised in the US & Europe, Didi spent her teenage summers in Taos, New Mexico, where she was first introduced to building with Adobe, beginning a love story with this humble material, which has only grown over the years.

Didi considered her artist parents, who were both professional modern painters, to have been of great influence. As a child, she would often quietly sit in a corner and listen to them talking with the famous artists and other intellectuals who made up their avantgarde circle, first in Europe, then as refugees in America, as they discussed varied topics and conducted intense arguments about the role of the artists in the society.

Before moving into a traditional Gujarati joint family in India after her marriage in 1951, Didi studied art. Her husband Narayan’s father, a ‘Contractor’ by profession would often demonstrate carpentry techniques and regale her with stories about Indian building traditions but, as was still usual in India in the fifties, she was discouraged from working herself.

Didi Contractor

After a decade of living in Nasik, Didi and her husband and children moved to Bombay where they built a home in Juhu which was then, still a serene beachside suburb filled with coconut groves. This home led to opportunities to design and build a few other homes such as the ‘Kutir’ for Prithviraj Kapoor. At the same time, Didi got the opportunity to renovate the ‘Lake Palace’ Udaipur which the Maharana of Mewar was converting into a heritage hotel. This project led to her brief successful career as a decorator.

Years later, when the children had all grown up and left home to study abroad, her quest for wanting to experience rural life and her spiritual practices led her to finally settle in Andreta in the Kangra Valley of Himachal Pradesh. She renovated old home with a vegetable garden and bare essentials and started living there. Didi says, “At that time, Kangra was still pristine with beautifully terraced fields amid clusters of slate-roofed adobe villages that harmonized with a majestic landscape dominated by the grandeur of the snow-clad Dhauladhar range. Clear rushing waters gleamed in streams and ancient waterways.”

A lot of that beautiful landscape has today been replaced with concrete structures in varied sizes and colours with plastic debris and mindless construction which pained her.


Materiality & Nature

“I like to welcome nature and I take Architecture as a dialogue with nature, our nature and the nature of the world around.”

She felt, “In our India, there’s always ‘Jugaad’ - often less expensive and lesser invasive. The one thing that has no carbon cost is ‘thought’. Thinking and Planning can free you up.”

“My father brought old wooden pieces from way up in the New Mexico mountains, for the 200-year-old house with thick Adobe walls and I helped my parents renovate it. At that point, I fell in love with Adobe and that love affair with Adobe has continued all my life,” she gleefully admitted to the audience at the WADe Asia event for women architects, artists & designers.

Didi Contractor

In Kangra, she came across extended families that still lived in “Clusters of imposing double-storey adobe homes scattered between their intensely cultivated fields.” She took careful note of the construction details of these “Old well-built sections, sketched motifs from the inventive woodwork and the lovely detailing that earthen plaster allows.”

Didi also used & experimented with other local materials and traditional techniques like stones. Her buildings, not all are of Adobe. For example, flat river stones used in pavements and walls.


Sensitive, Sustainable Architecture

Didi was extremely conscious of the carbon footprints that buildings can leave.

In her lecture, she pointed out that “When I take something out of the cycle of nature, I think about how it effects that cycle and whether to replace or reuse. Earth from Adobe building can be reused in a vegetable garden. We have to think of ways to reuse. Are there mountains of garbage outside the city? The garbage shouldn’t be used to create mounds, they should be used to create gardens if it is organic, and walls if it is rubble.” And in her text for Joginder Singh’s book, she mentioned:

“I attempt to make practical ecologically sensitive decisions, to comply with the restrictions imposed by the materials and skills available locally, to respect the individual artisans, and to conform to a culturally appropriate style.”


Respecting Tradition & Heritage

Expressing deep concerns about the current state of human affairs, during her speech in WADEASIA, Didi said The way in which we have commercialised our heritage, particularly the gifts of the earth, I am afraid we may not have any human affairs in the future. The things that have taken millennia to build up, from deep history, are dying due to ruthlessness, and I propose a total revolution.”

“May we take the Heritage and not distort it. May we go back to the roots of the heritage and give it a fresh expression in the world,” she admonished. “Understand the past, express yourself but don’t imitate.”

Elaborating further, she added, “The only surviving great culture is India which still holds some sort of nourishment from its ancientness and if we lose that we lose our grounding.” She urges humanity to look deeply at the meaning, to search thoroughly an understanding and translating things into the terms of our own times, but without losing that rootedness, then the tree can spread far, the branches & flowers will grow, and the fruits will be able to draw nourishment.


Light plays an important role in all her projects

The flow of light in her projects capture the very essence of the spirit of building. It is interesting to note that all her projects have skylights. “Space is drama, light is the play.”

“I am awed by the simplicity with which slanting winter sunlight can be lured into a structure, used as light, converted into heat, trapped and stored.”



Encouraging Artisans to contribute to the vision

Didi Contactor shared a close bond with the artisans and craftsmen she works with, some of whom have been associated with her for years together. She encouraged artisans to contribute to her vision and believed in the importance of direct hands-on experience so that you are aware of what you are asking someone else to do for you.

“You ask women to carry earth on site and you don’t know how heavy that is, you don’t know what it feels like to do it. Participating in that process is the most important thing a young architect should do.” Didi is deeply involved in the whole process, mechanics of the building, rituals of the building, right from laying the foundation stone, training with artisans, spending many hours sitting on sites.


Some of her important projects

Didi considered herself fortunate that most of her “projects were either commissioned by friends or by like-minded individuals who later became friends.” As she said in the text for Joginder’s book, “The closer the friendship, the more I respect and am sympathetic to the ideas and ideals of the client. Also it is easier to design: to identify deeply with each unique individual future occupant, to try to imagine what will meet their needs, give them pleasure and facilitate their lifestyle.”

Didi Contractor

The quotes have been picked from Didi Contractor’s Keynote speech during WADe Asia 2017 and the book by Joginder Singh, “An Adobe Revival - Didi Contractor’s Architecture.”

Nishtha Clinic: A Holistic Clinic for Dr. Barbara Nath-Wiser

This was one of the first projects; Didi took up, when she was close to 60 year old. Barbara shared the philosophy behind her holistic practice and Didi applied her similar approach to building. This was one of the first projects; Didi took up, when she was close to 60 year old. Barbara shared the philosophy behind her holistic practice and Didi applied her similar approach to building.

While planning the space for the clinic, Didi would imagine herself as the patient or as any relative accompanying a suffering loved one. The opportunity to design the clinic gave her the chance to demonstrate her knowledge of the traditional building practices, Didi used to spend hours watching Dr. Barbara at work to be able to devise the spaces most appropriate to her practices.



Sambhaavnaa was her second public project after Nishtha Clinic. Eminent public interest lawyer Prashant Bhushan invited Didi to participate in the creation of the campus for his envisioned institute for public policy. Deeply impressed by his ideals she was eager to help.


Dharmalaya Institute:

While she was building the Sambhaavnaa campus, Mark Moore came up to her with the idea of building an Institute that would help nourish the mind. The transcendent beauty of this site dictated her design. The building came up totally in relationship to the landscape and in relation to what you will see, what you will feel.

“So one of the main programs of the Dharmalaya Institute is not just working with minds, there are silent meditation programs and also programs where young architects come to work with their own hands in mud and bamboo and learn the other vernacular techniques, and hopefully to research those techniques in other parts of India, where there are usually at least one or two old masons or carpenters, one or two standing buildings, that will give you the clue of what people have learnt during the 2000 years of R&D that stand behind what I do,” she concluded.

A Documentary Film on Didi Contractor

A documentary film 'Marrying the Earth to the Building' on Didi Contractor screened at WADE ASIA Architecture & Design event, during October 2017 at Hotel Leela Ambience, Gurgaon.

This poetic documentary introduces us to her creations - houses built from clay, bamboo, slate and river stone, constructed in tribute to their natural surroundings.

At the age of 88, Didi Contractor pursued her vision working day and night – dreaming her designs then designing her dreams. She sketches roughly, then proportions with pinpoint accuracy - the blueprints for economically and ecologically sustainable, bright and well-ventilated buildings.

"We meet people who live in the visions realized by Didi Contractor and share in their enthusiasm to carry forward her fascinating ideas. Students from all over the world come to learn traditional building practices and find out how architecture can become a part of the ecosystem," said Steffi Giaracuni, Director of the film.

"Landscaping is really a key to this thing of marrying the earth to the building. There is a deeper connection which should then strengthen our own connection.“ – Didi Contractor

During the past three decades, apart from building homes, Didi has been training young artisans inculcating ecological values and reviving local skills. The lady is sure to make the merry morning of WADe Asia merrier with her pious thoughts and valuable advice.

'An Adobe Revival’ by Architect & Photographer Joginder Singh

adobe revival

What started with an assignment for a photo essay on Didi Contractor’s work with Adobe, for a leading magazine, finally led to this visually arresting book by Architect & Photographer Joginder Singh. After almost 7 years of meeting her, interviewing her, seeing her work with local materials, interacting with the artisans, and understanding her deep connection and respect for nature, the author has published a book that is not only valuable for every architect to go through and keep, as a document of her superlative work but also questions where our so-called modern architecture is heading and could be directed towards.

The book not only captures the breathtaking beauty of Didi’s projects through Joginder’s brilliant photography but also emphasizes the movement of light in her work. The book has a biographical account by Didi and ends with her ruminating, rather philosophically, on ecology and life. Quotes by Didi are peppered throughout the beautifully designed layout.

Didi herself commented, ‘Before Joginder Singh photographed my work, few photographs ever felt quite right: still images failed to capture my concern with the dynamics of movement in time or with the poetic shifting of the natural light throughout the day in various seasons. His compelling photographs invite the imagination: skilfully leading the eye to evoke the sense of movement. He not only conveys the spirit of my intentions but discovers, transforms, and even expands my vision; lifting images into the frame of compositions beyond my imagination.’

"We highly recommend this book," says Vertica Dvivedi, Surfaces Reporter Magazine. "It is now upon us and the architecture fraternity to take Didi Contractor's work forward from here onward."



A very Special & Exclusive Keynote by Didi Contractor at WADe Asia 2017

Marrying the Earth to the Building: A film on Didi Contractor at WADe Asia event

Didi Contractor A Life Dedicated to Inspire, Love Nature and Nurture Humanity

An Adobe Revival Didi Contractor’s Architecture by Joginder Singh


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